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12/01/2021

OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2021

22/12/2020

Development Co-operation Report 2020

Development Co-operation Report 2020

07/12/2020

Protecting old-age pensions and retirement savings

Protecting old-age pensions and retirement savings

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14/01/2021
After initial success in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic and a strong economic rebound, Turkey faces a resurgence of cases which puts pressure on the country’s health system, public resources, social cohesion and macroeconomic sustainability. Public finances offer room for government support to the households and businesses most in need, but this should be provided under a more transparent and predictable fiscal, quasi-fiscal, monetary and financial policy framework. In the early phases of the pandemic, shortcomings in the macroeconomic framework weighed on market confidence, creating tensions in risk premia, capital movements and exchange rates, which complicated macroeconomic policy responses to the crisis. New demands and opportunities also arose for structural change in the business sector. Product, labour and capital market reforms, bundled with a comprehensive upgrading of vocational education, would accelerate the much needed formalisation of business activities, the re-balancing of firm balance sheets with external equity capital, and a broad-based digital modernisation. A stronger, more sustainable and more inclusive post-COVID growth trajectory would then be within reach.SPECIAL FEATURE: UNLEASHING THE FULL POTENTIAL OF THE BUSINESS SECTOR
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12/01/2021
In immediate responses to the COVID-19 crisis, science and innovation are playing essential roles in providing a better scientific understanding of the virus, as well as in the development of vaccines, treatments and diagnostics. Both the public and private sectors have poured billions of dollars into these efforts, accompanied by unprecedented levels of global cooperation. However, the economic crisis that is currently unfolding is expected to severely curtail research and innovation expenditures in firms, while debt-laden governments will face multiple, competing demands for financial support. These developments threaten to cause long-term damage to innovation systems at a time when science and innovation are most needed to deal with the climate emergency, meet the Sustainable Development Goals, and accelerate the digital transformation. Governments will need to take measures to protect their innovation systems as part of their stimulus and recovery packages, but should also use these as opportunities for reforms. In particular, science, technology and innovation (STI) policy should shift towards supporting a more ambitious agenda of system transformation that promotes a managed transition to more sustainable, equitable and resilient futures.
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11/01/2021
Food systems around the world face a triple challenge: providing food security and nutrition for a growing global population; supporting livelihoods for those working along the food supply chain; and contributing to environmental sustainability. Better policies hold tremendous promise for making progress in these domains. This report focuses on three questions. What has been the performance of food systems to date, and what role did policies play? How can policy makers design coherent policies across the triple challenge? And how can policy makers deal with frictions related to facts, interests, and values, which often complicate the task of achieving better policies? Better policies will require breaking down silos between agriculture, health, and environmental policies, and overcoming knowledge gaps, resistance from interest groups, and differing values. Robust, inclusive, evidence-based processes are thus essential to making better policies for food systems.
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08/01/2021
This policy brief reports on the activity of online platforms during the COVID-19 crisis. Google Trends data for OECD and other G20 countries indicate that in some areas (such as retail sales, restaurant delivery, and mobile payments) online-platform use increased markedly during the first half of 2020, when most countries imposed lockdown and physical distancing measures. Thus, in this period, some economic transactions may have shifted to online marketplaces as people and businesses increasingly turned to online platforms to pursue economic and social activities. The rise in platform use was however highly heterogeneous across areas of activity and countries. Countries with higher levels of economic and technological development, easier access to infrastructure and connectivity, better digital skills, and wider Internet use tended to experience a larger increase in the use of online marketplaces, possibly mitigating the negative effects on output and jobs of the COVID-19 shock. This highlights the role of policies in strengthening countries’ digital preparedness and their resilience to future shocks.
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22/12/2020
The devastating impacts of coronavirus (COVID-19) on developing countries have tested the limits, ingenuity and flexibility of development co-operation while also uncovering best practices. This 58th edition of the Development Co-operation Report draws out early insights from leaders, OECD members, experts and civil society on the implications of coronavirus (COVID-19) for global solidarity and international co-operation for development in 2021 and beyond. The report suggests ways forward for the international development community as a whole for bold action and systemic reform to build resilient national and international systems capable of coping with global shocks, and providing and protecting global public goods while reinforcing the fundamental building blocks for sustainable development. The annual “development co-operation at a glance” infographics showcase the latest trends in development finance for over 80 providers of development co-operation, including members of the OECD, the Development Assistance Committee, other countries and philanthropic foundations.
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18/12/2020
In response to the COVID-19 crisis, a number of tax administrations have already published domestic guidance on some of the transfer pricing implications of COVID-19. While this is an important first step in setting taxpayer expectations, facilitating co-operative compliance and delivering greater tax certainty, the two-sided nature of transfer pricing means that it is only by agreeing a common approach that tax administrations can enhance tax certainty. This Guidance clarifies and illustrates the practical application of the arm’s length principle as articulated in the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines to the unique fact patterns and specific challenges implied by the COVID-19 pandemic. Four priority issues were identified and are covered in the Guidance: (i) comparability analysis; (ii) losses and the allocation of COVID-19 specific costs; (iii) government assistance programmes; and (iv) advance pricing agreements (“APAs”). This Guidance was developed and approved by the 137 members of the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS. While it is recognised that some Inclusive Framework members may also follow the United Nations Practical Manual on Transfer Pricing for Developing Countries (2017), this Guidance should be helpful in such circumstances where the UN Manual follows a similar analytical framework and allows for similar conclusions as the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines.
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16/12/2020
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe human suffering and triggered a deep recession in Brazil. Economic policies reacted in a timely and decisive manner to the crisis, supporting millions of Brazilians. But a strong and inclusive recovery from the recession will require long-lasting improvements in economic policies. Improving fiscal outcomes remains one of Brazil’s principal challenges given a high debt burden, to which the pandemic has added significantly. Public spending will need to become more efficient, including by building on past progress in the fight against corruption and economic crimes. Social protection can be strengthened through a better focus on the most effective policies and benefits, which could allow significant reductions in inequality and poverty. Stronger growth will hinge on raising productivity, which has been virtually stagnant for decades. This requires addressing underlying policy challenges, including reducing regulatory burdens, reforming taxes, strengthening judicial efficiency and fostering a stronger integration into the global economy. Raising productivity implies reallocations and structural changes in the economy, which should be accompanied by well-designed training and education policies. Training with a strong focus on local skill demand can help workers master the transition and seize new opportunities to move into better jobs. SPECIAL FEATURES: BOOSTING PRODUCTIVITY; SKILLS POLICIES TO FACILITATE STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT
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14/12/2020
The outlook for the tourism sector remains highly uncertain. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic continues to hit hard, with international tourism expected to decrease by around 80% in 2020. Domestic tourism is helping to soften the blow, at least partially, and governments have taken impressive immediate action to restore and re-activate the sector, while protecting jobs and businesses. Many countries are also now developing measures to build a more resilient tourism economy post COVID-19. These include preparing plans to support the sustainable recovery of tourism, promoting the digital transition and move to a greener tourism system, and rethinking tourism for the future. Rebuilding tourism for the future.
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11/12/2020
Transport connects people, places and cities. Investment in transport infrastructure therefore helps bridging economic and social divides. It promotes economic growth and catching up of regions by providing access to jobs for workers and markets for firms. This report summarises evidence on the benefits of transport investment for economic growth and job creation and thereby for catching up in OECD regions. Beyond economic divides, the report consider inequality in access to opportunities using the EC-ITF-OECD Urban Access Framework. It considers how transport can bridge social divides by taking a closer look at accessibility within OECD cities (functional urban areas). Cities differ greatly in their ability to provide inclusive access to opportunities across more affluent and poorer neighbourhoods. To bridge divides, the report highlights the need to go beyond transport infrastructure investment and consider wider urban planning, as well as complementary measures in regions.
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10/12/2020
The OECD Review of Fisheries 2020 aims to support policy makers and sector stakeholders in their efforts to deliver sustainable and resilient fisheries that can provide jobs, food, and livelihoods for future generations. The Review updates and analyses the OECD fisheries support estimate (FSE) database, the most comprehensive, detailed, and consistent collection of country level data on governments support to fisheries. It also presents and analyses newly-assembled data on the health of fish stocks; on the management of key stocks of commercial interest; and on the governance of fisheries across OECD countries and emerging economies with large fishing sectors. The report sheds light on how governments are managing fisheries to minimise detrimental impacts on resources and ecosystems, eliminate illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing, while increasing the socio-economic benefits from fishing. It suggests priorities for action both at the national level and for the international community.
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10/12/2020
The COVID-19 pandemic has plunged Finland into a deep recession, albeit less severe than in most other OECD countries. Finland managed to bring the first wave of the coronavirus under control quickly through a combination of voluntary mobility reductions and timely containment measures and is on track to do the same for the second wave. Nevertheless, many people have been laid off and the budgetary costs of supporting household- and business incomes have been considerable. Once the recovery is underway, substantial consolidation measures will be needed to achieve the government’s objective of eliminating the structural budget deficit by the end of the decade. Closing routes to early retirement would make a large contribution to achieving this objective.SPECIAL FEATURE: RAISING EMPLOYMENT
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08/12/2020
This policy note is an updated version of the note published end April 2020. It updates indicators and the main socio-economic consequences of the COVID-19 crisis in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and presents the main policy priorities to be achieved, taking into consideration the most recent evolution of the crisis. In 2020 LAC will be the most affected emerging and developing region in the world in terms of GDP growth and this crisis is hitting particularly the most vulnerable groups. Policy reactions have been bold, but further measures are needed.
08/12/2020
The German economy entered a deep recession in 2020 due to the coronavirus pandemic. A strong government response has reinforced health system capacity while protecting jobs and firms. The response to the crisis has included increases in investment to meet structural challenges from the energy transition and digital transformation. Further public investment is needed to resolve the infrastructure backlog, along with steps to remove delivery bottlenecks. Emissions pricing in transport and heating will help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, though further steps will be needed to meet targets. The German government has made good progress in addressing some key barriers to digital transformation, but can do more to unleash its full benefits. Alleviating connectivity bottlenecks, incentivising investment in knowledge-based capital and supporting business dynamism during the recovery by reducing administrative burden, facilitating access to financing, and accelerating progress towards digital government can boost technology diffusion and productivity. To empower everyone to thrive in digital environments, computational thinking should be introduced earlier and training for teachers increased to ensure effective use of digital technologies in schools.SPECIAL FEATURE: UNLEASHING THE BENEFITS OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION
08/12/2020
The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to affect agricultural markets over the next decade. OECD analysis highlights how slower economic growth could affect food security, farm livelihoods, greenhouse gas emissions, and trade. The size of these impacts depends, among other things, on the severity of the drop in global GDP. Based on two scenarios for economic growth recovery, this brief describes how the economic shock from the pandemic could reverberate through the agriculture sector over the next decade.The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to affect agricultural markets over the next decade. OECD analysis highlights how slower economic growth could affect food security, farm livelihoods, greenhouse gas emissions, and trade. The size of these impacts depends, among other things, on the severity of the drop in global GDP. Based on two scenarios for economic growth recovery, this brief describes how the economic shock from the pandemic could reverberate through the agriculture sector over the next decade.
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07/12/2020
The 2020 edition of the OECD Pensions Outlook examines a series of policy options to help governments improve the sustainability and resilience of pension systems. It considers how to ensure that policy makers balance the trade-off between the short-term and long-term consequences of policy responses to COVID-19; how to determine and assess the adequacy of retirement income; how funded pension arrangements can support individuals in non-standard forms of work to save for retirement; how to select default investment strategies; how to address the potential negative consequences from frequent switching of investment strategies; and, how retirement income arrangements can share both the investment and longevity risks among different stakeholders in a sustainable manner. This edition also discusses how governments can communicate in a way that helps people choose their optimal investment strategies.
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04/12/2020
COVID-19 has hit the Polish society and its economy hard, even if to a lesser extent than other European countries. Employment has declined and public debt has increased abruptly, which will make it more challenging to solve long-term issues, such as the low productivity of some workers, weak environmental outcomes and rising ageing costs. Ensuring longer working lives in good health will be key to secure the pension system’s sustainability. To boost the recovery and sustain the pre-crisis growth in living standards, Poland needs to invest in greener infrastructure, additional healthcare capacity and better skills. Easing the reallocation of firms and workers would facilitate shifts in the economic structure induced by the current crisis and raise productivity. Finally boosting the capacity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to innovate would help them to export more and adapt to a rapidly changing international environment.SPECIAL FEATURE: BOOSTING SMEs’ INTERNATIONALISATION
03/12/2020
Data on government sector receipts, and on taxes in particular, are basic inputs to most structural economic descriptions and economic analyses and are increasingly used in economic comparisons. This annual publication gives a conceptual framework to define which government receipts should be regarded as taxes. It presents a unique set of detailed and internationally comparable tax data in a common format for all OECD countries from 1965 onwards.
03/12/2020
Consumption Tax Trends provides information on Value Added Taxes/Goods and Services Taxes (VAT/GST) and excise duty rates in OECD member countries. It also contains information about international aspects of VAT/GST developments and the efficiency of this tax. It describes a range of other consumption taxation provisions on tobacco, alcoholic beverages, motor vehicles and aviation fuels.
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01/12/2020
The COVID-19 pandemic will cast a long shadow over the world’s economies and the economic outlook is very uncertain. This issue of the OECD Economic Outlook analyses the impacts of COVID-19 on the economy and puts forward projections for output, employment, prices, fiscal and current account balances.This issue includes a general assessment of the macroeconomic situation, a series of notes on the current policy challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic and a chapter summarising developments and providing projections for each individual country. Coverage is provided for all OECD members as well as for selected partner economies.
30/11/2020
Regions and Cities at a Glance 2020 provides a comprehensive assessment of how regions and cities across the OECD are progressing towards stronger, more sustainable and more resilient economies and societies. The publication provides a unique comparative picture in a number of aspects connected to economic development, health, well-being and net zero-carbon transition across regions and cities in OECD and selected non-OECD countries. In the light of the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the report analyses outcomes and drivers of social, economic and environmental resilience.This edition provides several new features. First, an extended set of health-related indicators, including excess mortality, morbidity rates, and air quality. Second, novel indicators on the potential of regions and cities to remote working, as well as on trade openness and access to digital infrastructure enrich the economic chapter. Third, the report offers a number of new climate-and environment-related indicators, including on sustainable electricity production and related carbon emissions. The report shows population trends in over nine thousands cities and metropolitan areas across the entire world. Finally, the last chapter presents new indicators on spending and revenues capacity of regional governments in OECD countries.
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